120 East First Street
Oswego, New York 13126
7000 - STUDENTS
7212 Response to Intervention (RTI) Process
Response to Intervention (RTI) is a multi-tiered early prevention and intervention system designed to improve outcomes for all students. In accordance with Commissioner's Regulations, the
In accordance with Commissioner's Regulations, the
The New York State Education Department (SED) has released a guidance document to assist school districts in designing and implementing an effective RTI process. This document includes, but is not limited to, information regarding regulatory requirements, quality indicators, staff development, tools to assist districts in selecting a specific model and procedures for the use of RTI data in determining if a student has a learning disability. This guidance document is available at:
Minimum Requirements of District's RTI Program
The District's RTI process shall include the following minimum requirements:
a) Scientific, research-based instruction in reading and mathematics provided to all students in the general education class by qualified personnel. Instruction in reading, per Commissioner's Regulations, shall mean scientific, research-based reading programs that include explicit and systematic instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary development, reading fluency (including oral reading skills) and reading comprehension strategies;
b) Screenings shall be provided to all students in the class to identify those students who are not making academic progress at expected rates.
Students in grades Pre-K through grade 12 will be screened as per District requirements but at least quarterly. The District will screen students as per Part 117 of the Regulations of the Commissioner of Education and shall include all new entrants and students with low test scores;
c) Scientific, research-based instruction matched to student need with increasingly intensive levels of targeted interventions for those students who do not make satisfactory progress in their levels of performance and/or in their rate of learning to meet age or grade level standards;
d) Repeated assessments of student achievement which should include curriculum based measures to determine if interventions are resulting in student progress toward age or grade level standards;
e) The application of information about the student's response to intervention to make educational decisions about changes in student goals, instruction and/or services and the decision to make a referral for special education programs and/or services; and will be reviewed by the school based intervention team in place in the building to review such student information and applying same to make decisions concerning student academic progress and further intervention strategies;
f) Written notification to the parents when the student requires an intervention beyond that provided to all students in the general education classroom that provides information about:
1. The amount and nature of student performance data that will be collected and the general education services that will be provided as enumerated in Commissioner's Regulations;
2. Strategies for increasing the student's rate of learning; and
3. The parents' right to request an evaluation for special education programs and/or services.
Structure of Response to Intervention Program
The concept of Response to Intervention (RTI) will be the focus of the teaching/learning process and a basic foundation of our AIS program. The focus is on skill deficit identification, targeted strategies, variety of methods of interventions, and frequent progress monitoring. RTI is the framework identified in Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), as an approach to remedial intervention that generates data to inform instruction and identify students who may require special education and related services in a systematic way. This framework ensures that students experiencing education difficulties receive more timely and effective support in the least restrictive environment (President's Commission on Excellence in Special Education, 2002).
A key element of an RTI approach is the provision of early intervention when students first experience academic difficulties, with the goal of improving the achievement of all students. In addition to the preventative and remedial services this approach may provide at-risk students, it shows promise for contributing data for identifying learning disabilities.
The District's RTI program will consist of multiple tiers of instruction/assessment to address increasingly intensive levels of targeted intervention to promote early identification of student performance needs and/or rate of learning, and to help raise achievement levels for all students.
School based intervention teams, whose members may include, but are not limited to, administration, behavior consultants, coaches, counselors, disabled student classroom aides, ESL teachers, interagency personnel form the community, nurses, occupational therapists, parent/community volunteers, physical therapists, psychologists, reading teachers, security officers, social workers, home/school liaisons, special and general education teachers, speech/language therapists, support personnel, teachers, teacher aides, and other individuals deemed appropriate by the District, will be available for each building/grade level classification to address the implementation of the District's RTI process.
The School based intervention responsibilities shall include, but are not limited to, the following:
a) Determining the level of interventions/student performance criteria appropriate for each tier of the RTI model;
b) Analyzing information/assessments concerning a student's response to intervention and making educational decisions about changes in goals, instruction and/or services;
c) Determining whether to make a referral for special education programs and/or services.
Criteria for Determining the Levels of Intervention to be Provided to Students
The District has established grade levels/assessment guideline for targeted areas of student performance in accordance with Commissioner's Regulations to identify students who do not make satisfactory progress in their levels of performance and/or in their rate of learning to meet age or grade level standards. The District has identified assessment measures/tools and the corresponding scores or levels of proficiency below which students shall be considered for increasingly intensive levels of targeted intervention and instruction. This information is available in the Oswego City School District Academic Services Plan.
The District will provide multiple tiers of increasingly intensive levels of targeted intervention and instruction for those students who do not make satisfactory progress in their levels of performance and/or in their rate of learning to meet age or grade level standards.
It is expected that use of the Tier Level of instruction will be specific to each student's needs and will be an ongoing process, with students entering and exiting tiers of intervention according to the analysis of student performance data and progress monitoring.
Multi-Tiered Model of Student Support Services
a) Interventionists: General Education Teacher
b) Program: Tier One is designated to provide for approximately eighty percent (80%) of the instructional needs of all students. It is comprised of three (3) basic elements:
1. Research based core instruction,
2. Targeted, small group, and research-based intervention for struggling student,
3. Documented progress monitoring of skill progress.
c) Focus: All students in general education who are struggling.
d) Structure Options: 1. In class, small group skill intervention
2. Standards and scientifically based instruction
3. Small group skill remediation
5. Peer support
6. "Transition" academies
7. Addition to the core curriculum
8. Differentiated Instruction
9. Instructional accommodations
10. Environmental accommodations
e) Groupings: Flexible groupings based on teachers progress monitoring
f) Time: Targeted small groups (suggested twenty  minutes twice a week)
g) Assessment: Curriculum based measurement minimal of two (2) times per month and consistent documentation of instructional strategies used to target individual skill deficits.
h) Setting: In general education setting
a) Interventionists: Highly qualified general education teachers, remedial specialists, content area specialists, counselors, Principals, teaching assistants, school psychologists, speech language therapists
b) Program: Tier 2 is designed to successfully provide for approximately twenty percent (20%) of the instructional needs of struggling students. It is comprised of customized, small group programs, strategies, and procedures that can become more intensive when students are not making progress in specific skill areas. Tier 2 provides:
1. Increased time for interventions,
2. Smaller group size,
3. Frequent, ongoing progress monitoring, and
4. The duration of this Tier may be increased to months or even years.
c) Focus: Tier 2 is for students who have not been successful with Tier 1 efforts and have not made progress to support the skill deficit(s). This may begin with supplemental skill instruction to support academic and behavior needs that have already been addressed in general education. Additional and more intensive support may need to be given to students who have not been successful and have not made progress to support the deficit.
d) Structure Options: 1. Targeted skill interventions
2. Small group remediation
3. Computer based supports
4. Tutoring Center
5. Learning Lab
6. Advisor/mentor for "at risk"
7. Guided study halls
8. Peer tutoring
9. Peer mentoring
10. Study Club
11. Pre teaching
13. Study skills
14. Organizational Skills
15. Test anxiety
16. Counselor watch
More Intensive Tier 2 Structure Options
1. Intensive skill intervention for academic and/or behavior needs
2. Supplemental instruction
3. Intensive Remediation
4. Behavior Plan
5. Structured subject area study hall
6. Extended day (before or after school)
7. Summer programs
8. More intensive levels of Tier 2
e) Groupings: Flexible, homogeneous small groups, skill based weaknesses
f) Time: Targeted small groups (3-6)
Twenty to thirty (20-30) minutes three (3) times a week or daily for more intensive needs
g) Assessment: Curriculum based measurement minimal of weekly with consistent documentation of progress data. Formal reporting to parents on skill progress will be quarterly.
h) Setting: In general education setting or pull out
a) Interventionists: Special Education Teachers, Speech Language Therapists, Counselors, Occupational Therapists, and Physical Therapists
b) Program: Referral to Special Education for Multidisciplinary Evaluation
Referral with all documentation of previous tiers, assessment and progress monitoring data to determine eligibility for direct special education services. Direct instruction, test accommodations and all requirements under Part 200 of the Commissioner's Regulations will be applied.
c) Focus: Modification and prioritization of general education to meet the academic, behavioral and functional needs of students with identified disabilities.
d) Structure Options: 1. Related Services
2. Consultation Teacher Services
3. Resource Room Supports
9. Residential Program (approved)
e) Grouping and Time: Determined by regulation and placement decision of Committee on Special Education (CSE).
f) Assessment: Curriculum based measurement minimal of twice weekly for consistent documentation of student progress in academic or behavior deficits. Formal reporting to parents on skill progress will be quarterly.
g) Setting: In general education setting or pulled out
Amount and Nature of Student Performance Data to be Collected
The School-based Intervention will determine the amount and nature of student performance data that will be collected to assess, on an ongoing basis, student performance results and address ongoing academic needs as warranted. Such data collection will reflect the Tier Level of intervention provided to the student. Student performance data will also be used to review the District's RTI program and make modifications to the program as deemed necessary.
Manner and Frequency for Progress Monitoring
The School-based Intervention Team shall monitor the progress of those students receiving intervention services beyond that provided to all students in the general education classroom. The Team shall meet with the student's teacher(s) and will determine if further adjustments need to be made to the student's current instructional program and/or a change made to the Tier Level of intervention provided. Monitoring of student progress shall be an ongoing part of the RTI program from the initial screening to completion of the RTI process as applicable. Parents may also request that the progress of their child be reviewed by the School-based Intervention.
To the greatest extent possible, each of these areas should be researched-based and implemented with fidelity. Fidelity refers to the intensity and accuracy with which instruction and intervention are implemented. Implementing instruction with high fidelity means that the teacher is following the implementation protocol established by the relevant research design. Publishers provide teacher guides that establish this protocol and provide professional development with regard to appropriate implementation of the protocol. It is then the responsibility of the teacher and administrator to ensure that the curriculum is implemented with a high degree of fidelity in the classroom in a sustained manner. Otherwise, the program may not have the desired effect or may have an effect that is less than optimal. Oswego City Schools must be careful to address fidelity as they look at instructional programs in order to make effective decisions. We must ensure more efficient and fiscally responsible practices by making efforts to evolve with existing programs, provided that they are scientific and research-based, instead of conducting revolutionary changes by replacing programs that "don't work" because they are not used correctly. Fidelity can only be achieved if teachers are provided with appropriate training and Building Principals monitor the implementation of school and District-wide curricula as instructional leaders.
All staff members involved in the development, provision and/or assessment of the District's RTI program, including both general education and special education instructional personnel, shall receive appropriate training necessary to implement the District's RTI program. Staff development will include the criteria for determining the levels of intervention provided to students, the types of interventions, collection of student performance data, and the manner and frequency for monitoring progress.
Written notification shall be provided to parents when their child requires an intervention beyond that provided to all students in the general education classroom. Such written notice shall include the following information:
a) The amount and nature of student performance data that will be collected and the general education services that will be provided as part of the RTI process;
b) Strategies for increasing the child's rate of learning; and
c) The parents' right to request an evaluation for special education programs and/or services.
34 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Sections 300.309 and 300.311
Education Law Sections 3208, 4002, 4401, 4401-a, 4402, 4402, and 4410
8 New York Code of Rules and Regulations (NYCRR) Sections 100.2(ii), 200.2(b)(7), 200.4(a), 200.4(j)(3)(i),